The subject of the article is the characterization of the commercialization of the results of scientific activity. The starting point is to point out the Polish specificity of the legal regulation of the conduct of scientific activity and its coherence with the market environment. A special place in this regard is occupied by research institutes. The author presents the legal possibilities of commercialization of the results of scientific activity conducted by research institutes focusing on the so-called indirect commercialization, which he discusses in detail. In addition to procedural issues, the article discusses in detail the prerequisites for commercialization, including in particular the legally defined objectives of its implementation, the regulation of which indicates the specificity of Polish solutions.