The basic legal act governing professional qualification in the European Union (and the countries of the European Economic Area and Belgium) is Directive 2005/36/ EC of the European Parliament and of Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications. To practise a profession outside the country in which it was earned, a citizen must comply with certain legal requirements. The author discusses the Polish Act on the Profession of Physiotherapist. The EU has established a European Professional Card. Its holder is entitled to the same rights and privileges, as well as assuming obligations, across the EU as in the state in which the profession was learned. In Poland, pursuant to Article 5 of the Act on the Profession of Physiotherapist, the term “physiotherapist” may only be used by a person who has the right to practice the profession, and the professional title itself is protected by law.