On 26 November 2021, a new speciality concerning surgical physician assistance (Polish: chirurgiczna asysta lekarza) was introduced in a regulation of the Polish Minister of Health. The term ‘surgeon’s assistant’ refers to an independent healthcare professional authorised to perform certain medical and surgical procedures under the supervision of a specialist surgeon. Undoubtedly, the successful introduction of this new speciality depends primarily on the appropriate training process. Then, it will be necessary to change the internal procedures existing at medical facilities, to ensure that the work of surgeon’s assistants is organised properly and enables their effective cooperation with other qualified practitioners. The introduction of a new speciality is a great challenge for hospitals, surgeons and society in general. It requires taking many additional legal and organisational measures by hospitals as well as at the national level.