Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Vol. 12 No. 2 (2019)


Collective Bargaining as a Form of Trade Union Involvement in Regulating Working Conditions on Digital Labour Platforms

DOI:  [Google Scholar]
Published: 2019-12-31


The article deals with the issue of trade unions’ involvement in the issues of employment on Internet platforms. In the first section, there are general issues related to collective labour law and employment on the platform. The following section analyses the various forms of trade union involvement. The article contains the primary hypothesis that the critical condition for the regulation of fair and decent work on global Internet platforms is the activation of trade unions in the form of information activities and social dialogue in the form of collective bargaining.


  1. Aneesh, Aneesh. 2009. “Global Labor: Algocratic Modes of Organization.” Sociological Theory 27 (4): 347–70. [Google Scholar]
  2. Arntz, Melan, Terry Gregory, and Zierahn Ulrich. 2016. “How Many Jobs Could Be Replaced?” OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 2:1–4. [Google Scholar]
  3. Avogaro, Matteo. 2017. “Right To Disconnect: French and Italian Proposals for a Global Issue.” Presentation during 5th Conference of the Regulating for Decent Work Network. [Google Scholar]
  4. Berg, Janine Marie, Marianne Furrer, Ellie Harmon, Uma Rani, and M. Six Silberman. 2018. Digital Labour Platforms and the Future of Work: Towards Decent Work in the Online World. International Labour Office. Geneva: International Labour Office. [Google Scholar]
  5. Bughin, Jacques, James Manyika, Jonathan Woetzel, Frank Michael Mattern, Susan Chui, Anu Lund, Sree Madgavkar, et al. 2017. “A Future That Works: Automation, Employment, and Productivity.” Summary of McKinsey Report on Automation.pdf [accessed: 10.10.2019]. [Google Scholar]
  6. Caroll, John M. 1992. “Human Computer Interaction.” [accessed: 10.10.2019]. [Google Scholar]
  7. Change, Jae–Hee, and Phu Huynh. 2016. ASEAN in Transformation. The Future of Jobs at Risk of Automation. Bureau for Employers’ Activities, Working Paper No 9. Bangkok: International Labour Organization. [Google Scholar]
  8. Cherry, Miriam. 2016. “Beyond Misclassification: The Digital Transformation of Work.” Comparative Labor Law and Policy Journal 37 (3): 544–77. [Google Scholar]
  9. Danaher, John. 2016. “The Threat of Algocracy: Reality, Resistance and Accommodation.” Philosophy and Technology 29 (3): 245–68. [Google Scholar]
  10. De Stefano, Valerio. 2018a. “Negotiating the Algorithmm: Automation, Artificial Intelligence and Labour Protection.” SSRN Electronic Journal, no. 254. [Google Scholar]
  11. De Stefano, Valerio. 2018b. “Negotiating the Algorithmm: Automation, Artificial Intelligence and Labour Protection.” SSRN Electronic Journal, no. 246. [Google Scholar]
  12. Finkin, Matthew W. 2016. “Beclouded Work, Beclouded Workers in Historical Perspective.” Journal of Law and Society Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal 37 (3): 20. [Google Scholar]
  13. Frey, Carl Benedikt, and Michael A. Osborne. 2017. “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 114 (January). Elsevier Inc.: 254–80. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.08.019 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gibson, Megan. 2014. “Here’s a Radical Way to End Vacation Email Overload.” [accessed: 10.10.2019]. [Google Scholar]
  15. Hale, Julian. 2018. “In Denmark, a Historic Collective Agreement Is Turning the «Bogus Self--Employed» into «Workers with Rights».” [accessed: 10.10.2019]. [Google Scholar]
  16. Howe, Jeff. 2006. “The Rise of Crowdsourcing.” Wired Magazine 14 (06): 1–5. [Google Scholar]
  17. Howe, Jeff. 2009. Crowdsourcing : Why the Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business. New York: Three Rivers Press. [Google Scholar]
  18. Kim, Nancy. 2014. “The Wrap Contract Morass.” Southwestern University Law Review 44 (2): 309–25. [Google Scholar]
  19. Lee, Min Kyung, Daniel Kusbit, Evan Metsky, and Laura Dabbish. 2015. “Working with Machines: The Impact of Algorithmic and Data-Driven Management on Human Workers.” [accessed: 10.10.2019]. [Google Scholar]
  20. Lessig, Lawrence. 2000. “Code Is Law. On Liberty in Cyberspace.” [accessed: 10.10.2019]. [Google Scholar]
  21. Li, Hongwei, Bin Yu, and Dengyong Zhou. 2013. “Error Rate Bounds in Crowdsourcing Models.” [accessed: 10.10.2019]. [Google Scholar]
  22. Ludicone, Feliciano. 2017. “Italy: New Rules to Protect Self-Employed Workers and Regulate ICT-Based Mobile Work.” [accessed: 10.10.2019]. [Google Scholar]
  23. Pieter de Groen, Willem, Zachary Kilhoffer, Karolien Lenaerts, and Irene Mandl. 2018. “Employment and Working Conditions of Selected Types of Platform Work.” [accessed: 10.10.2019]. [Google Scholar]
  24. Prassl, Jeremias. 2018a. “Collective Voice in the Platform Economy: Challenges, Opportunities, Solutions.” Report to the ETUC. [accessed: 10.10.2019]. [Google Scholar]
  25. Prassl, Jeremias. 2018b. Humans as a Service: The Promise and Perils of Work in the Gig Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
  26. Schubert, Claudia, and Marc-Thorsten Hütt. 2019. “Economy-on-Demand and the Fairness of Algorithms.” European Labour Law Journal 10 (1): 3–16. [Google Scholar]
  27. The World Bank. 2016. “World Development Report, 2016: Digital Dividends.” Choice Reviews Online 53 (11): 53‒4889‒53–4889. [Google Scholar]
  28. Voss, Eckhard and Hannah Riede. 2018. Cyfryzacja a pratycypacja praowików: jakie są opinie związków zawodowych, pracowników na poziomie przedsiębiorstwa i pracowników wykonujących pracę za pośrednictwem platform cyfrowych w Europie. Raport dla ETUC. [accessed: 10.10.2019]. [Google Scholar]


Download data is not yet available.