Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Vol. 13 No. 2 (2020)


Prohibition of Business or Trade by the Clergy According to the 1983 Code of Canon Law. An Outline

DOI:  [Google Scholar]
Published: 2020-12-31


The practice of business or trade by clerics and religious was strictly prohibited from the first centuries of the Church. Appropriate decisions were made at the Councils of Nicaea, Chalcedon, Lateran (IV) and Trent. In the 1917 Code of Canon Law, the legislator regulated the analysed matter in can. 142 and 2380. They were the source of the work of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law. According to the legislator’s disposition contained in can. 286 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law “Clerics are prohibited from conducting business or trade personally or through others, for their own advantage or that of others, except with the permission of the legitimate ecclesiastical authority.” The breach of the above prohibition was punishable by a mandatory indeterminate ferendae sententiae penalty, which should be imposed on the cleric or religious, depending on the gravity of the delict.


  1. Ambrose, Merlin. 2020. “Prohibition of Commerce and Trade according to Can. 286 of CIC 1983.” [accessed: 24.10.2020]. [Google Scholar]
  2. Augustine, Chas. 1918. A Commentary on the New Code of Canon Law. Vol. II: Clergy and Hierarchy. St. Louis–London: B. Herder Book Co. [Google Scholar]
  3. Bączkowicz, Franciszek, Józef Baron, and Władysław Stawinoga. 1957. Prawo kanoniczne. Podręcznik dla duchowieństwa. Vol. I. Opole: Wydawnictwo Diecezjalne Św. Krzyża w Opolu. Nakładem Instytutu Teologicznego Księży Misjonarzy w Krakowie. [Google Scholar]
  4. Bernal Pascual, Jose. 2004. “Penalties for Particular Offences.” In Code of Canon Law Annotated. Prepared under the responsibility of the Instituto Martín de Azpilcueta. Second edition revised and updated of the 6th Spanish language edition, ed. Ernest Caparros, and Hélène Aubé, 1063–1086. Montréal–Woodridge: Wilson & Lafleur Limitée. Midwest Theological Forum. [Google Scholar]
  5. “Business.” In Merriam-Webster Dictionary. [accessed: 24.10.2020]. [Google Scholar]
  6. Calabrese, Antonio. 2006. Diritto penale canonico. Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. [Google Scholar]
  7. Dale, Alfred W. 1882. The Synod of Elvira and Christian Life in the Fourth Century. London: Macmillan. [Google Scholar]
  8. De Paolis, Velasio. 1995. “La proibizione del commercio ai religiosi (cf. cann. 672 e 286).” Ius Ecclesiae 7, no. 2:693–712. [Google Scholar]
  9. Di Mattia, Giuseppe. 2004. “Offences Against Special Obligations.” In Exegetical Commentary on the Code of Canon Law. Prepared Under the Responsibility of the Martín de Azpilcueta Institute. Faculty of Canon Law. University of Navarre. Vol. IV/1, ed. Ángel Marzoa, Jorge Miras, and Rafael Rodríguez–Ocaña, 539–48. Montréal–Chicago: Wilson & Lafleur. Midwest Theological Forum. [Google Scholar]
  10. Gałkowki, Tomasz. 2016. “Zakaz uprawiania handlu i dokonywania transakcji przez duchownych Kościoła katolickiego.” Łódzkie Studia Teologiczne 25, no 2:79–90. [Google Scholar]
  11. Grabowski, Ignacy. 1948. Prawo kanoniczne. Warszawa: Nakład Gebethnera i Wolffa. [Google Scholar]
  12. Green, Thomas J. 2000. “Sanctions in the Church.” In New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law, ed. John P. Beal, James A. Coriden, and Thomas J. Green, 1529–605. New York–Mahwah: Paulist Press. [Google Scholar]
  13. Grzywaczewski, Józef. 1992. “Duchowni uprawiający handel w pierwszych wiekach Kościoła.” Wiadomości Diecezjalne Podlaskie 61, no. 1–3:14–28. [Google Scholar]
  14. Grzywaczewski, Józef. 1997. “Dobra materialne starożytnego Kościoła.” Vox Patrum 17, no. 32–33:361–69. [Google Scholar]
  15. Hamman, Adalbert. 1989. Życie codzienne w Afryce Północnej w czasach św. Augustyna, przeł. Marzena Stafiej–Wróblewska, and Elżbieta Sieradzińska. Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy Pax. [Google Scholar]
  16. Hannan, Philip M. 1950. The Canonical Concept of congrua sustentatio for the Secular Clergy. Washington: The Catholic University of America Press. [Google Scholar]
  17. Iwanicka, Katarzyna. 2018. “Zakaz uprawiania handlu przez duchownych.” In Obowiązki i prawa duchownych w świetle Kodeksu Prawa Kanonicznego, ed. Marek Saj, 293–316. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo «scriptum». Lewandowski, Paweł. 2019. Godziwe utrzymanie prezbiterów diecezjalnych w Polsce. Lublin: Stowarzyszenie Absolwentów i Przyjaciół Wydziału Prawa Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego. [Google Scholar]
  18. Sheehy, Gerard, Ralph Brown, Donal Kelly, et al., ed. 1995. The Canon Law Letter & Spirit. A Practical Guide to the Code of Canon Law. London: Geoffrey Chapman. [Google Scholar]
  19. Syryjczyk, Jerzy. 2003. Kanoniczne prawo karne. Część szczególna. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego. [Google Scholar]
  20. Woestman, William H. 2006. The Sacrament of Orders and the Clerical State. A Commentary on the Code of Canon Law. Ottawa: Faculty of Canon Law. Saint Paul University. [Google Scholar]
  21. Woodall, George J. 2011. A Passion for Justice. An Introductory Guide to the Code of Canon Law. Leominster: Gracewing. [Google Scholar]


Download data is not yet available.